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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

immunity

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然而,国家也很警惕网络金融的快速发展,该领域基本不受监管,发生系统性危机的风险可能会很高。据摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)和中国研究机构“网贷之家”的调查显示,自2007年以来,中国有370家P2P贷款平台倒闭,其中270家是在过去的一年中倒闭的。
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数年来,莎尔玛·海雅克和格温妮丝·帕特洛都是性侵的受害者,麦高恩表示,她明白特朗普的支持者都憎恨好莱坞,因为他们的自由主义都是假的。

而90后微信用户数量则略有下降,从94.1%跌到了86.6%。
World's Most International Universities Ranking 2016 by The Times Higher Education included 200 universities from 28 countries. It employed indicators such as the proportion of international staff, the number of international students and research papers published with at least one co-author from another country of each institution.
瑞典就人道主义援助贡献基金而言,属于最慷慨的国家之一,整体排名第六。“公民权益”排名第二,“最佳绿色生活国家”排名第一。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

天津未现企业抢占房源操纵房租现象

It is the first time that EMBA-Global, the joint programme delivered by London Business School and Columbia Business School, has dropped out of the top five.
It can transport rows of seedlings in minutes. And can reduce planting time by 88 percent.
在此背景下,白不仅仅是指肤色。你可以将其定义为“人种-民族多数”的成员,但这样有点拗口。它的真正含义是不会被定义为“他者”的特权。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

1940年5月,德国进军法国,将40万英法联军围困在敦刻尔克的海滩上。在英国和法国军队的地空掩护下,盟军利用所有能用上的军用和民用船只,有条不紊地进行了撤退。这个英勇行动的最后,有33万名来自法国、英国、比利时和荷兰士兵得以安全撤退。
Two against-the-clock tours of Los Angeles. Two celebrations of the sometimes prickly solidarity among women. Four tremendous performances, from Kitana Kiki Rodriguez, Mya Taylor, Julia Garner and the great Lily Tomlin. “Grandma” is the work of a studio veteran. “Tangerine” was shot on iPhones. Anyone prone to lamenting the death of movies needs to shut up and watch these.
但我预计其他银行将效仿此举。在不涨薪的前提下,任何让优秀员工保持活力和积极性的办法都值得考虑。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • In this Jan. 6, 2004 file photo, Apple CEO Steve Jobs displays the at the Macworld Conference and Expo in San Francisco. Jobs,
  • 北京等多地共有产权房项目落地 房价或受一定抑制
  • PRRI research director Daniel Cox said that some respondents - including 75 percent of non-white Protestants - believe extreme weather is both evidence of end times and the result of climate change.
  • 佛山陶瓷迁都清远 中国新瓷都熊熊窑火已经点燃
  • 1—5月全国荧光灯产量下降5%
  • Supporting Actress in a Mini-Series or Movie: Regina King, “American Crime”
    Meanwhile, New Yorkers living in the city’s nearly one million rent-stabilized apartments should brace for a fight in Albany in June, when the rent-stabilization law expires. Housing advocates hope to see a reversal of a rule that allows landlords to deregulate vacant units if the rent reaches $2,500 a month.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 德国卓伯根家居中国总部将花落湖南湘江, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

京津冀严查“大棚房” 为何仍有人顶风销售?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

人社部:全面取消社保待遇资格集中认证

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 1.世界杯赛期间的一整个月电视遥控器都由我控制。
    While Cousins' volatile personality and high-usage tendencies present challenges, there are numerous justifications for rolling the dice:
  • 即便亚洲国家推出了在其他国家推动ETF市场蓬勃发展的监管措施,也仍存在其他障碍。例如,蒙塔纳里表示,提供给亚洲投资者的产品大多与国内市场的股票挂钩,因此ETF没有被用来让投资者在国内投资于外国市场。
    purchase
    它基于针对各商学院及其2013年毕业的学员的调查。
    纽约的无所作为带来两个问题:杰克逊有足够的能量消除他在任时给球队带来的伤害吗?
    Personal per capita disposable income increased by 6.3 percent in real terms.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 北京临时交通管制 多家进口家具货品延期
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 国内市场竞争加剧 中国陶瓷在全球占据重要地位

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

国有控股投资增速下滑1.1个百分点至20.5%,这使得国有控股投资在今年1至10月份全国固定资产投资总额中所占的比例小幅下滑至36.6%,但这仍是2011年以来的最高占比之一,反映出今年政府开支在支撑经济增长方面发挥着巨大作用。
与去年相比,亚马逊(Amazon)、星巴克(Starbucks)和Facebook今年的品牌价值飙升。亚马逊的品牌价值增长59%,至990亿美元,排名第七,Elspeth Cheung表示,这在一定程度上源于其创造需求、而不仅仅是满足需求的能力。她表示,亚马逊的一小时送货服务对其他零售商加快送货速度构成压力,同时这家在线零售商进入物流领域对联合包裹(UPS)、联邦快递(FedEx)以及DHL等快递公司构成威胁。
She said: "I am extremely surprised and overwhelmed. I just want to start by saying what an incredible year for women in film. These categories are so crowed and crammed with incredible integrity and skill and I feel prouder than ever to be included."
“而在市场上前所未有的是确实有客户在寻找这样的投资。”
公告宣称:"我们已经报警,并且收集了证据来维护公司的声誉。而那些泄露裸照的人将被按照法律惩处。"
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这是中国首次占据榜单前三甲以及在前10强中占了5名。中国工商银行连续两年占据第1名的宝座,中国建设银行次之,而且中国农业银行向上移动了5名成为第3名。这三大银行与排在第9名的中国银行一起跻身前10强,中国银行是“四大国有银行”中的另一个成员。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Like many child stars, Maddie speaks of being old before her time.
  • 政府“撑腰” 涂料灰产链有望洗白、扶正
  • 据纽约Selby Jennings的金融服务业猎头奥利弗库克(Oliver Cooke)介绍,各银行如今注重它们所称的“内部流动”,即跨部门调职。例如,如果一家银行面临债券交易低迷的情况,它可以让交易员转岗成为风险分析师或合规官,此举可以保持员工的兴趣——同时节省一大笔遣散费。
    Qube会提醒你注意垃圾回收,在垃圾最后被倒出来的时候进行监控,并告诉你更换空气清新剂。但这些人们通常可以通过嗅觉和其他感觉器官来判断。现在有一个300美元的“优雅”不锈钢,会不断用讨人厌的移动警报提醒你。
  • 16金茂01盘中临时停牌 停牌前下跌23%
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • "Forty percent of Donald Trump's fortune is tied up in Trump Tower and eight buildings within one mile of it," according to the magazine. "What happens in that micromarket does more to affect the net worth of Donald Trump than anything else in the world. Lately, the neighborhood has been struggling (relatively speaking)."
    人类在过去50年的平均寿命比人类存在的20万年中的平均寿命要长的多。目前,人类的平均寿命是70岁,1950年的平均寿命是47岁,两者存在很大的差异。
  • 节目40 歌曲《难忘今宵》李谷一 张英席 白丽莎(孔子学院学员)、茹丝(孔子学院学员)、李天翼(孔子学院学员)、吴孟天(在华留学生)
    美国整体排名第七,是世界最大经济体,也是世界最强国。“创业精神”排名第三,“文化影响力”也排名第三。
  • “有个员工烤了个蛋糕,把辞职信直接写在了蛋糕上。”
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  • Age: 53
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    例如,佳士得给威尼斯艺术家弗朗西斯科·丰泰巴索(Francesco Fontebasso)在18世纪中叶创作的油画《井边的丽贝卡和埃利泽》(Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well)的最低估价为12万英镑。根据Artnet的数据,在1990年的拍卖会上,这幅令人愉快的洛可可装饰风格的油画是以28.6万英镑购得的。在12月8日的拍卖会上,它仅得到一个电话出价——11.5万英镑(不含佣金),约合17万美元。而投资者们可不认为在购买沃霍尔(Warhol)或巴斯奎特(Basquiat)的作品25年之后会损失约40%。如果一幅早期绘画大师的作品被搁置在交易商的画廊里,想转卖它就更加困难。
  • The federal control board has requested a revised fiscal plan that has to be approved by end of January, saying that the one Garcia submitted last year was in part unrealistic and relied too heavily on federal funds. Garcia had refused to submit a revised plan to include austerity measures. Rossello has said he would request an extension of that deadline as well as an extension of a moratorium that expires in February and currently protects Puerto Rico from lawsuits filed by angered creditors.
    An employee in the public relations department at Tencent Holdings, operator of a live-broadcast app through which a man received online payments of more than 250,000 yuan ($36,400) from a 13-year-old girl for his singing talent, said the girl might have faked her age when registering.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 四线城市楼市遇寒冬:每平米2888元 仍然卖不动 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

地产股收盘丨园区股迎来利好 长春经开、空港股份涨停

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

二线楼市大爆发:散户像当年买股票一样买房子

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

IPO重启预披露 4家建材企业迎来上市曙光

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

东莞:7月楼市网签 创8年同期新低

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • The dollar value of exports from emerging market countries will rise next year for the first time since 2014, helped by higher commodity prices and modestly stronger demand, it is predicted.
  • 他告诉电视台记者说:在美国有这样一种制度,我们会注意那些本来该到你的手上结果却没到你手上的东西,我们会把它重新送还给你,这个系统非常好。
  • 北京卫浴卖场定位明确 国内品牌更具人气

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • As if 2016 hadn’t been hard enough for China’s workforce, an annual survey has revealed that more than half of the country’s white-collar employees got no year-end bonus ahead of the upcoming (and costly) lunar new year holiday.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 节目25 歌曲《风吹麦浪》,李健 孙俪
    Sectors: out of favour
    The mattress comes with sensors inside the bed that can detect pressure and send messages to the app, which spares no details. The app not only detects movement on the bed, but also records the intensity and speed at which people are getting it on.
  • 何塞安东尼奥梅亚德(José Antonio Meade)会成为下一任墨西哥总统吗?

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • per全部+spect看+ive→全部看到→看法;眼界;透视
  • 楼市新政效应分化 一线城市销量上涨明显
  • 立场:呼吁结束政府停摆局面

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 《住宅室内装饰装修设计规范》等三项家居新国标正式实施
  • Household substance abuse
  • 二线楼市大爆发:散户像当年买股票一样买房子
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

内房股、内银股在香港集体下挫

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 广州市2018年计划向户籍家庭推出4000余套公租房
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 中小房企扎堆赴港 融资需求突显
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

"As robotics is expanding into nearly every industry, Chinese robot makers should realize the gap between them and foreign brands, take advantage of China's robotics development boom and learn from foreign experience to help China grow from the world's largest robot market into a robot manufacturing power," said Qu.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

这是继2016年我国首次同步调整企业和机关事业单位退休人员的基本养老金水平后,我国再次做出同步调整。
Unfortunately, there won't be a 2014 rematch between Brazil and Uruguay, as the latter was eliminated on Saturday. If Brazil makes it to the final on July 13, the country could play Mexico, the Netherlands, Costa Rica, Greece, USA, Belgium, Argentina or Switzerland.
The ECB ended the year with a vote on December 3 to cut its deposit rate to minus 0.3 per cent and an expansion in asset purchases that leaves its quantitative easing programme at 1.46tn. The move came days before the US Federal Reserve increased interest rates for the first time since 2006, underlining the sharply divergent policies being pursued on either side of the Atlantic.
在9月初发布的另一份报告中,世界气象组织(World Meteorological Organization)称,2013年大气中的二氧化碳水平,比工业革命之前的普遍水平高出42%。其他重要的温室气体含量也有所增加,与前工业化时代水平相比,甲烷增加了153%,一氧化二氮增加了21%。
问:最后一个问题——在你的许多作品中,你总以强烈的感情质疑正义,质疑英雄主义是否道德。那么你对于成为英雄这种事是怎么看的呢?
Darkest Hour
10. Economics is killing the economy, but like coke addicts we won't stop
好市多首席执行官克雷格杰利内克
在北约1999年对南斯拉夫的空袭中,大西洋联盟对塞尔维亚和科索沃境内数以百计的目标进行了打击。绝大多数目标都没有争议:防空阵地、军队指挥部和其他军事目标。然而对一个特殊目标的摧毁却在世界另一端掀起了声势浩大的反西方特别是反美浪潮。那个目标就是驻贝尔格莱德的中国大使馆。
During last year's LFW, there were 250 anti-fur protesters, The Guardian reported, and a show in February saw an activist storm the stage at a Mary Katrantzou show.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

2017年家装市场竞争不减 企业各出新招

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 同时,美国Rapper歌手Eminem被证明是“复出王”,摘得最佳Hip Hop歌手奖。”The Lose Yourself ”的创作者与Hip Hop的新面孔相互竞争,包括Drake, Future, Kendrick Lamar and Post Malone。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

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  • 四川家居业欲打造“互联网+”思维下的一体化定制模式
  • After working for half a year, the average monthly income for 2014 graduates is RMB3,487, a significant increase from RMB3,250 in 2013 and RMB3,048 in 2012.
  • 红木价格还未触底 处于艰难的库存消化期
  • It seems that Christmas time is here once again, and it is time again to bring in the New Year. We wish the merriest of Christmas to you and your loved ones, and we wish you happiness and prosperity in the year ahead.又该迎接新的一年了。我们向你及你的亲人们致以最美好的祝福,愿你在新的一年里事业兴旺,幸福美满!

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 中国建材行业一周大事记(7.20-7.26)
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Which brands most improved their reputations in social media in 2012? And which companies made them worse?
  • 3.在戛纳,他们说英语

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

“去杠杆”已历时两年半 “稳杠杆”成现阶段主旋律

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