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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Like air, blue skies treat everyone equally.

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The web portal, which has put mobile technology at the heart of a plan to turn around its struggling fortunes, has turned to British teenager Nick D’Aloisio and Summly, which automatically summarises news stories for the small screen.
Market watchers were forced to digest the reality of negative 2.9% GDP for the first quarter of the year. All of a sudden, everyone’s forecasts seemed too rosy—or at least too smooth—compared to the lumpy reality. This led to a raft of second-guessing on the timing of the Fed’s eventual exit from its bond-buying stimulus program. We went from confidence to WTF? in a space of a few weeks, with all the asset class rotations and market corrections that come along with a fresh bout of uncertainty.
SplashData公司建议,使用榜单上出现的密码的用户和公司赶快修改自己的密码。SplashData公司警告称,用数字代替字母的常见密码,像“dr4mat1c”,也很容易遭到破解,因为现在密码入侵者的科技手段也越来越高端了。

大小:3073平方英尺(约286平方米)
2015年英国《金融时报》全球高管工商管理硕士课程(Global Executive MBA,简称全球EMBA)排行榜由于两个原因而引人注目。不仅因为这是英国《金融时报》发布的第100个商学院排行榜,也是因为今年首次有一个主办方包含一所中国内地商学院的项目拔得头筹。
如果观众还不知道这部影片是以20世纪80年代初为背景,那看一眼安娜的直刘海就知道了。她留着齐肩长发,刘海以外的部分在脸庞四周形成微微弯曲的弧度。这个造型很简单,但对这个女人来说显得很有力量,她丈夫艾贝尔(奥斯卡·伊萨克[Oscar Isaac]饰)经营取暖油生意,不过她的过去更为复杂。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

理性判断市场前景 房企降速求稳

《风骚律师》(Better Call Saul),AMC,2月8日播出。这是文斯·吉里根(Vice Gilligan)与彼得·古尔德(Peter Gould)的《绝命毒师》的衍生剧,或许是今年冬天最受期待的新剧了。鲍勃·奥登科克(Bob Odenkirk)饰演狡猾的律师索尔·古德曼(Saul Goodman),剧情设定在《绝命毒师》的故事发生之前,所以布莱恩·克莱斯顿(Bryan Cranston)或亚伦·保罗(Aaron Paul)至多只是客串出演而已。但观众们最喜欢的乔纳森·班克斯(Jonathan Banks)将在里面重现他在《绝命毒师》中的角色——冷静的行动执行者迈克·厄尔曼特劳特(Mike Ehrmantraut)。
The pandas did some tai-chi in Trafalgar Square before kicking on at a panda party in Convent Garden as part of the first ever Panda Awareness Week.
“中日关系说到底,就是日本能不能接受中国的发展壮大,这是根本问题。”

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

n. 贷款,借出,债权人
10. Economics is killing the economy, but like coke addicts we won't stop
昨天,中国一次控制爆破让19栋楼在10秒钟之内被夷平。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 肠道细菌正以我们想像不到的方式干扰着我们。新的研究指出,像帕金森综合症等神经退行性疾病实际上可能始于肠道,而不是大脑。越来越多的证据显示,慢性疲劳综合征可能要归咎于人体内的微生物群系。随着肠道细菌显示出控制食欲以及改变大脑结构的迹象,而且有引起大脑损伤而导致中风的表现,我们的这个小过客(肠道细菌)有着不容忽视的力量。
  • 《建筑防水行业“十三五”发展规划》编写启动会召开
  • While the political system will be fixated on preserving stability as new leaders take the helm, reduced economic flexibility could thwart Beijing's intentions to do so.
  • 卫浴市场到底有几个箭牌 几个恒洁 几个华艺?
  • 中国“中高收入阶层”已经超过一亿!有你吗?
  • Economists say that both the residential and commercial markets in Hong Kong will be hurt by the same factors: slower growth in China, the depreciation of the renminbi, a crackdown on corruption on the mainland, and predictions that the US’s low interest-rate environment is due to end. However, government cooling measures introduced in 2012 to reduce speculative investment in Hong Kong property are an additional damper on the residential sector.
    她说:“我实在太惊讶了,简直是受宠若惊。我想说的是这一年对于影坛女性是极不平凡的一年。各个奖项的角逐者的品格和演技都是那么出众,能够入选让我倍感骄傲。”

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 湖北:前8月房地产开发投资同比增长8.1%, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

央视调查海南违规地产:该配合整改的项目却视而不见

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

租房者离品质租赁有多远

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 该地区拥有数百英里的海滩和湖岸、美国的最古老丛林以及瀑布景观。最值得一提的是,该地区游客相对较少,环境清幽,价钱也较为合理。
    中国国家统计局发布的10月份制造业采购经理指数(PMI)降至51.6,比路透(Reuters)调查的经济学家给出的预测中值52要低,离荣枯分界线50更近。
  • 时间:2010-01-26 编辑:vicki
    勇士的横扫,实际上让那些试图挑战勇士的球队无力追赶勇士的脚步,致使联盟在季后赛收入上损失惨重。于是,总决赛便成了战胜勇士的最后的希望,也是最后的机会。总有些愚蠢的人通过不断告诉你不要低估了勒布朗·詹姆斯来让你重燃希望。我看了所有五场詹姆斯在的总决赛,我现在客观的告诉你:詹姆斯知道自己赢不了。“我能做什么?他们赢了73场比赛,我打败了他们,于是他们引进了凯文杜兰特。”在凯文杜兰特用自己的冷血投射杀死系列赛之前,骑士还设法在三场比赛中夺得了一场胜利。但最后,骑士队虽然避免了横扫的尴尬,但他们结束赛季的方式也只能用虎头蛇尾来形容。
    "这是自然保护的一次伟大创举。"
    201202/172834.shtmlChinese entrepreneur Wang Xing stays in touch with a sister in California and an uncle in Australia through chat software that offers a glimpse of how China's Internet companies can compete globally.
    [stik]

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 全国首张红木家具电子身份证发布
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 2017年过半 LED照明产业走势如何?

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

这篇文章指出,食用有益于心脏的食物是防止痴呆、保护记忆力的关键。一些心脏病的并发症和阿尔茨海默症以及痴呆症的并发症十分相似,因此研究阿尔茨海默症和痴呆症的教授们认为,有益于心脏的食物大概也有益于大脑和记忆。水果、蔬菜、全麦面包、豆子、坚果和橄榄油都有对心脏有益。如果这10个方法你不能都采用的话,一个健康的饮食至少能让你不要丢失记性。
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不像这篇文章中其他的人造物品,人工胰腺并不处于前期研究阶段,这个装置确实存在,而且在今年9月份得到了FDA的销售许可
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这会吓走一些人,这些人不了解你更好。
Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew announced the plans for the new redesign Wednesday. Lew said the Treasury Department will launch a social media campaign dubbed "The New 10" to solicit ideas on whose portrait should be chosen for the new bill, along with a series of public meetings. He will reveal his decision sometime this year.
China is now home to over 80,000 trade markets and total retail sales of consumer goods would reach 30 trillion yuan this year with consumption contributing to about 60 percent of total GDP growth, Gao said.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • A best film nomination looks certain. Darkest Hour's Gary Oldman is the favorite for best actor, but if anyone can beat him it's probably Chalamet.
  • 7月二手住宅中介网签量为7571套,环比下降2.5% 市场胶着状态更趋明显
  • 剑桥大学佳奇管理学院也以优异表现结束今年,它首次出现在开放招生和定制高管教育榜单上,而且在MBA榜单上的排名上升3位,在EMBA榜单上的排名上升12位。
    In early 2005, Stone and her co-founders Elisa Camahort Page and Jory Des Jardins noticed that there were countless women blogging, but mainstream media rarely linked to their posts. The trio decided to host a grassroots conference that year and attracted sponsors like Google and Yahoo. It quickly sold out and soon after, they launched BlogHer.com. The publishing platform turned blogging into a lucrative business for many women -- it paid $25 million to 5,000 of its bloggers between 2009 and 2012 -- and now reaches an audience of 92 million.
  • 不动产登记实施近满月 有官员为抛房降价赠车库
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 倒灌啤酒机是倒啤酒的一种革命性创新方式,节省时间,减少浪费,也令顾客啧啧称奇。
    pressure
  • 一座陵墓般的濒危物种仓库。
    According to the search engine, Euro 2012 beat Olympics tickets as the top internet search of the year in the UK, the Sun reported.
  • 在此次颁奖典礼上,麦肯锡全球董事总经理鲍达民(Dominic Barton)在典礼上还颁发了“布拉肯贠尔”青年商业作家奖(Bracken Bower Prize for young business writers),获奖者为克里斯托弗克利尔菲尔德(Christopher Clearfield)和安德拉什舠尔奇克(András Tilcsik)。他们计划出版的图书将会探索企业如何能够管控发生灾难性失败的风险。该奖项面向35岁以下作者,专门颁发给那些探讨增长所构成的挑战和机遇的商业图书计划,奖金为1.5万英镑。
    'Cutie and the Boxer' was hardly noticed by the movie-going public, but a list of fine films isn't a rundown of box-office triumphs. The reach of Zachary Heinzerling's debut feature-length documentary is equaled by its grasp. On the surface it's about nothing more-or less-than a troubled marriage that has somehow managed to last 40 years. Beneath the surface, then startlingly out in the open, is a history of rivalry (both husband and wife are artists), enmity, reluctant devotion and, most startling of all, enduring love.
  • Western whites have a place within their nations’ new, broader national identities. But unless they accept it, the crisis of whiteness seems likely to continue.
    Meanwhile, a salesman from online travel company Tuniu Corp told the Financial Times that it had on Friday “removed all tours to South Korea due to the Thaad issue”. A search for South Korean tours on the website returns the message: “Sorry, we have not found a relevant product.”
    2.这里没有人能够回答你问的任何关于击剑的问题。还是去google一下吧。
  • 一部富有感染力的、描写一名年轻黑人男同性恋成长故事的影片《月光男孩》(Moonlight),获得2017年奥斯卡(Oscar)最佳影片奖。不过,该片险些与此奖项擦肩而过,原因是在混乱的颁奖现场,此奖项曾被误颁给了《爱乐之城》(La La Land)。
    "The autonomous region has invested 4 billion yuan (around 600 million US dollars) to promote industries with local features in poor areas, and relocated 77,000 poor people last year," said Lu Huadong, deputy director with the office.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 热销下的房地产市场:投资增速创两年来新高 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

今年西安落户人口突破50万

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

成都拍出中国第一高楼地块 溢价率达107.79%

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

建材价格持续下跌 河南超八成建材企业收入下降

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

老物件受青睐 仿旧家居用品正走俏

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 节目5 创意器乐演奏《琴筝和鸣》雅尼(美国)、常静等
  • Good Time
  • 中国家居市场份额集中 大品牌市场占有率不断提高

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 2013美国就业前景最好的州:亚利桑那州,德州
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 今年上榜的中国品牌有36个,其中8个进入前100名,包括国家电网(36)、中国工商银行(40)、腾讯(43)、央视(62)、海尔(76)、中国移动(79)、华为(81)和联想(90)。
    Will a stable and liquid bitcoin futures market develop
    仿佛是2016年对中国员工还不够艰难,一项年度调查披露,中国逾半数白领雇员在即将到来的(开销巨大的)农历春节假期来临前没有领到年终奖。
  • n. 紧张,压力

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • The last leg of the year is set to be a busy one for initial public offerings on both sides of the Atlantic, with companies including Italy’s Pirelli, Alibaba-backed Best Logistics and video streaming platform Roku lining up to list.
  • 楼市低迷影响建材市场 未雨绸缪寻求破局之路
  • 中国国家统计局数据显示,10月份,食品价格的再次放缓拉低了中国的通胀率。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 多地遇土地证续期问题 专家:是否影响业主居住
  • Household substance abuse
  • 深圳华富村棚改规划正式公示
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

山东:现房库存降至2015年来最低水平

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 下半年楼市涨幅明显放缓 成交量始现调整迹象
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 中国硅藻泥材料行业新闻发布会在京召开 致力整顿行业乱象
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

据中新网报道,德国工商总会外贸主管沃尔克·特赖尔表示,2016年下半年从德国出口到中国的货物量增长非常迅速。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

中国中央和地方政府会对技术升级方面投入更多的经费。 包括现代化农业、运输、医疗等方面。这些积极的投资将会进一步提高中国生产和制造业的竞争能力。这将是一次国家行为,目的是为了推动提高产品质量和产品合格率以及以提升产品主导的全球竞争力。
The Meyerowitz Stories
时尚界通常视历史为潜在灵感的百宝囊,可供随时汲取、混合搭配。即便如此,目前这一阶段对历史的依赖也太过极端。
● “佛罗里达一男子在毒品实验室放屁引发火灾,后死于爆炸”
For over two decades I have been writing about the rise of Asia and the dynamic driving it. There is an extraordinary consensus among east Asian leaders that Asia needs to use this window of opportunity to focus on economic development and growth. War is the biggest obstacle to development. If Asians were truly stupid, they would engage in such wars and derail their enormous development promise. Most Asian leaders, barring North Korea, understand well the dangers of war. Hence, while there will be tensions and rivalries in the region, there will be no wars in the region, in 2014 or in 2015. As 2015 unfolds, I would like to encourage all western pundits to understand the underlying Asian dynamic on its own terms, and not on the basis of western preconceptions.
A child prodigy with an IQ higher than Albert Einstein is celebrating becoming a unique member of Mensa. Nishi Uggalle, ten, is one of the youngest people in the country to score the highest possible mark of 162 in the IQ society's supervised testing.
从“高跟鞋门”到“金棕榈狗狗奖”(Palm Dog),再到迅速走红的“老爹身材(Dad bod)”,戛纳电影展的这12天,真是令人眼花缭乱。随着电影节进入尾声,英国广播公司回顾了本届戛纳影展上的九桩事。
Bank of China followed the trend, with profits up only 1.3 per cent and ROAA declining by 0.1 percentage points.
她笔下的人物们觉得自己为了登上“美国梦”的山巅,经历了漫长的排队等候,但是上山的队伍放慢了速度,甚至停顿下来了。而那些移民、黑人和其他“外来者”似乎还在插队。
Best Companies rank: 61

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

毕业季租房高峰期来临 二手房降温租金涨幅收窄

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 昨日发布的央行数据显示,中国外汇储备上月出现有记录以来第三大单月降幅。这重燃了人们对于中国遭遇资本外流的担忧,此前中国外汇储备似乎企稳。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Technology
  • 王伟:“双品牌”战略是红星美凯龙的发展重心
  • Job-searching employees often send these subtle signals without expecting their managers to notice, Kay says. But they do。
  • 安徽138万户小规模纳税人年预计减税降费逾44亿元
  • While you're studying, pay attention to the material you know will be on a test and write a quick practice question. Start a new document on your laptop and add questions as you think of them.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 安徽房地产开发投资突破5000亿元
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 对于其他队伍而言,在球场上拥有良好判断力的德国也是一直非常出色的队伍。意大利也是世界杯上无法忽视的队伍,而拥有罗纳尔多的葡萄牙队将会是一直极具危险性的队伍。拥有众多的大将的比利时队也将成为人们口中津津乐道的黑马队伍。
  • For once, the Lakers are in good spot and don't have to rush into anything. Take some time. See what they have. They're not making the playoffs with that defense, but that's not really the point of this season anyway.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

2015年我国墙纸行业市场发展现状分析报告

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