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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

该协会的首席经济学家Lawrence Yun预计,到今年年底,30年期固息抵押贷款的平均利率将触及5.5%,高于去年底的4.5%和去年上半年的3.5%。抵押贷款利率在短期内如此急剧上升,可能会损害购房者的承受能力,甚至吓退更多购房者。

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She had recently emerged as the right hand of her father, the former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. But corruption charges are clouding her rapid rise.
为回应这起事件,借贷宝12月1日在其新浪微博上发表了一份公告,强调用裸照作抵押贷款是用户之间的私人交易,该公司无法加以管理。
The London school’s MBA is ranked first in Europe, its EMBA programme, delivered jointly with Columbia Business School in the US, is ranked third and its MiM programme is in the top 10 on its first participation. The MiM ranking was the last missing piece for LBS to come first in Europe.

今年初,执政的共产党设定了今年贸易增长6%的目标,但2015年头十个月的贸易总额同比下降逾8%。
There are two divergent views of what is happening to the oil price ithin the industry and among serious investors. 2016 may help us to see which is correct.
[b?k'ti?ri?]

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

2018年信用等级A级以上房地产开发企业名单

I'm going to disagree on one team you mentioned: the Kings. The West is a bit shallow again, and Sacramento is in the mix for a playoff spot. It's not likely or anything, but so long as they are in the mix, they have to pull out almost all the stops to grab it.
n. 版权,著作权
尽管有少数人坚持这种说法,但绝大多数研究气候的科学家表示,地球正在经历一个长期变暖的趋势,这种趋势给人类带来深刻的威胁,而且几乎完全是由人类活动造成的。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

adj. 有才能的,有天赋的
Against: It might be that bit too far from the mainstream to make a huge awards impact.
老虎要入眠,鸟儿要降落;

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • The report said there were now 594 dollar billionaires in China, putting China ahead of the United States' 535. However, none of China's super-rich make it into the global top 20.
  • 济南房价涨幅创历史新高 专家建议“冷水”降温
  • adj. 优雅的
  • 新一线城市吸纳能力全面超越一线城市
  • 全国建材家居市场“破冰”仍需时日
  • ‘Faultless performance, you are stunning and you could win this competition,’ Amanda said.
    至少在城市大部分人能去上班是不可能的,这将影响多个行业,包括金融、广告、医疗保健和艺术。近两天城市的交通线路、桥梁、隧道都瘫痪了,在最新的报告中,地铁到下周可能会正常运作。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 国务院印发《关于推进国家级经济技术开发区创新提升打造改革开放新高地的意见》, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

环保风暴来袭 粤闽川贵四省百家陶企停产

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

家居电商消费今年或超2000亿元

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 今年的最佳流行音乐专辑出自几位有许多话要讲的女强人:洛德对孤独的深刻思考,凯莎有关解放的强烈表态;泰勒·斯威夫特就真实的自己与媒体中所呈现的个人形象而与他们算总账。
    日前,斯坦福大学商学院(Stanford Graduate School of Business)教授彼得o库迪斯基于这场荷兰危机共同撰写了一篇文章,围绕“个人经验(而非市场信息)决定乐观、悲观以及信贷的获得与否”这种不那么科学的方法给出了现代经验。
  • Set in 1950's London, Reynolds Woodcock is a renowned dressmaker whose fastidious life is disrupted by a young, strong-willed woman, Alma, who becomes his muse and lover.
    需要注意的是,票房总收入和个人收入是两个不同的概念。在2012年6月到2013年6月期间(这是我们编制最新全球100名人榜所采用的时间段),唐尼的估计个人收入为7,500万美元,比强森多挣2,900万美元。而本文所讨论的数字是每位明星出演的电影在今年斩获的全球票房。
    这座墓地在2007年7月份的时候首次被发现,由新疆文化遗产和考古研究院负责开挖,挖掘工作得到当地政府的支持。研究团队将他们的发现发表在了中国的期刊《文物》上。这篇文章最近被翻译成英语,并发布在了《中国文化遗迹》杂志上。
    [.dem?n'strein]
    pandemic

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 绿色建材市场整体发展水平差 行业评价标准缺失
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 报告:养老地产存用地规模过大高端项目扎堆问题

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Her subjects felt like they were waiting in a long line to reach the top of a hill where the American dream was waiting for them. But the line’s uphill progress had slowed, even stopped. And immigrants, black people and other “outsiders” seemed to be cutting the line.
After the success of The Conjuring, Ed Warren and Lorraine Warren are back to kick some ghost butts. Conjuring 2 is based on the Enfield Poltergeist, which is apparently a true event that took place in London in 1977.
In a humiliating 111-77 loss to the Golden State Warriors at Oracle Arena, Bryant shot 1-of-14 from the field, including 1-of-7 from 3-point range, and scored four points. He also shot 1-of-14 in a loss last season to the San Antonio Spurs.
Those falls came despite a rise in insurance premium income of 37.3 per cent year-on-year to Rmb1.88tn, while total assets reached Rmb14.27tn, up 15.4 per cent.
['?unip]
The reason for its high valuation is based on the fact that it was the first time China Post released stamps featuring the Chinese Zodiac since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
不论是在那首一目了然的《IDGAF》(《我才不在乎呢》)中对情人的不屑一顾,还是在那首狂热的《Lost in Your Light》(《迷失在你的光芒中》)与米格尔热烈的音乐相和,她以些许艾蕾莎·贝丝·摩儿那种深沉的态度和些许希雅那种令人受不了的夸张,强烈地表达着自己的情感,但她也是一位比这两人都要热情的歌手。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 我们对已经达成或者希望达成的一些区域贸易安排一直持开放态度,也乐见其成。只要是有利于贸易自由化的,我们都会去参与、去推进。
  • 南京2020年蓝天率要达72% 新型环保涂料将得到重用
  • 刘易斯说道:“人们不能像这样,抛弃他们的宠物。每个人都有悉心照料自己宠物的法律义务。”
    The overwhelming weight of the coverage of the oil market by analysts and commentators concentrates on the supply side and the volumes being produced and exported from Saudi Arabia or elsewhere. Supply is important but costs matter more.
  • 证监会:已有50家证券公司完成协议签署 承诺出资累计545亿元化解市场风险
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • If you've got children, I understand that this isn't always possible. Children should always come first. But if you don't show up for your classes, you're not getting that education we discussed in No. 1.
    Lisa Stone
  • They appeared in high spirits despite losing three-nil to Belgium on Saturday .
    adj. 最初的,首要的,最好的,典型的
  • After China hawk Steve Bannon’s exit there was a temptation to proclaim the death of the Trump White House’s economic nationalism. But that ignored the presence of Donald Trump, who is instinctually a protectionist. He wants “tariffs” rather than deals when it comes to China, as we’ve learned in recent days. He also sees cracking down on China as key to keeping his “America First” promise to his base.
    All three factors, says Mr Koepke, were at work in the Mexican currency crisis of 1994-95, when the Fed embarked on a tightening cycle in jumps of 25, 50 and crucially, in November 1994, of 75 basis points.
  • 9月份CPI录得1.6%的同比涨幅后,经济学家曾预测10月份的同比涨幅为1.5%。中国政府为今年全年设定的通胀目标为“3%左右”。
    科森重塑了卡瑞尔的鼻子,把它变成鹰钩鼻。他还把卡瑞尔的发际线往后刮了一点,留出更多额头。
    adj. 傲慢的,自大的
  • n. 无限
    尽管中国的私人财富大幅增长,但中国的亿万富豪仍未跻身全球顶级富豪行列。胡润估计,中国首富、万达集团(Wanda Group)掌门人王健林在全球富豪中排名第26位。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 酒店集团进入非标住宿领域不会一蹴而就 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

北京23家家具企业年内关停

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

佛山市建材行业协会成立 共建区域产业优势

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

中央经济工作会议:打好精准脱贫攻坚战

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

智能家居企业各自为政 商业模式待解

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Last week, Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta said that the former first lady's shortlist of potential running mates will include women, quickly leading to speculation that Clinton will consider Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren, a popular progressive, for an all-female ticket.
  • 但是人造胰腺能够自动释放胰岛素到你的身体里。这个装置看起来像一个规律的胰岛素泵,它可以穿透皮肤连续地释放胰岛素进入身体。而且它一直监视血液里的血糖含量,并根据血糖含量调整胰岛素释放量。所以,即使携带该设备的人睡着了,也不会有血糖降至很低而晕倒的危险。
  • 半年LED企业两成亏损 浙江亏损企业最多

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Play up being smarter than everyone, develop some obvious insecurities. Forget social skills if you happen to have any.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • “这是一个目标,也是我们想经历的事情”,库里赛后表示。“这将会是一个巨大的成就,因为做一些在联盟历史上还从未发生过的事情,感觉会是非常与众不同的。你永远也不会知道,这种机会是否还会再次来过。在取得这一连串的胜利过程当中,有许多许多的不可掌控的因素,特别是在赛季的开局阶段。”
    该银行在其报告中称:中国是否减持库存将成为2017年棉花和糖市场的主要价格推动因素,玉米、大豆或植物油可能也是如此。
    As the stars' private jets swooped in, the internet was going mad for 'the Dad bod'; the slightly flabby male physique was trending and there were plenty of examples on screen. Deborah Cole of AFP noted a “sweating, panting and shirtless” Gerard Depardieu in Valley of Love and a flash of Joaquin Phoenix's “tubby tummy” in Woody Allen's Irrational Man. When Colin Farrell strode the red carpet for the premiere of The Lobster, he looked his usual trim self – but in the film he is distinctly paunchy. To add some girth for the role of a lonely singleton in Yorgos Lanthimos' absurdist black comedy, Farrell went on a massively calorific diet that included drinking melted ice cream, he told the Hollywood Reporter. Eating “two cheeseburgers, fries and Coca-Colas, and two slices of chocolate cake at 10am is not that fun,” he said. “And I love cheese?burgers."
  • People in fourth-tier and smaller cities have economic pressures close to the national average level in terms of income, education, medical services and elderly care, while family and human relationship stress are higher than second- and third-tier cities.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • White anxiety has fueled this year’s political tumult in the West: Britain’s surprising vote to exit the European Union, Donald J. Trump’s unexpected capture of the Republican presidential nomination in the United States, the rise of right-wing nationalism in Norway, Hungary, Austria and Greece.
  • 发改委解读乡村振兴战略规划:重塑城乡关系 确保国家粮食安全
  • 急增的整形顾客中很多并不是韩国人,他们来自中国、日本、中东甚至非洲。韩国部长们认为医疗旅游将有助于推动韩国经济发展。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 微电影营销 品牌你投对了吗?
  • Household substance abuse
  • 北京上半年新房成交创新低 下半年楼市有望逆袭
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

通州区对口帮扶区域产业发展推介大会在通召开 助力蒙东三旗打赢脱贫攻坚战

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 上半年中国红木进口形势分析 市场已渐入消化期
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 北京:小学入学更看重“实际居住”
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

停战日在1938年成为美国的正式节日,但在1954年改称退伍军人节。当时是第二次世界大战和朝鲜战争结束不久。退伍军人节跟每年五月最后一个星期一的阵亡将士纪念日不同。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

4. 《狗心》(Heart of a Dog),导演:劳瑞·安德森(Laurie Anderson)。
It was visible in practically every brand that edged from the 1960s to 1970s for the season currently in stores, including Alberta Ferretti, Pucci and Etro.
但是,如果《广告狂人》向我们展示了什么的话(除了修身西服看起来多酷,宽领带真的不是男装的点睛之笔),那么,它最主要展示的是,60年代非常复杂,往往不太愉快,偶尔具有破坏性。
The One-China policy constitutes the political foundation of China-US relations which has remained unshaken despite the changing circumstances, nor can this relationship be undermined. With that foundation in place, we believe that there are broad prospects for China-US cooperation.
inspection
The government also needs to adopt the Internet Plus governance to ensure that government services will be more easily accessible for our people.
Maddie has now appeared in three of Sia's videos - Chandelier, Elastic Heart and Big Girls Cry.
久而久之,这种民族融合给球队带了不同寻常的和谐。队中的年轻球员,尤其是切尔西的阿扎尔和卢卡库以及曼联的贾努扎伊,成了许多竞争对手羡慕的对象。
自2003年以来,上海软科教育信息咨询有限公司就根据第三方的数据,开始发布全球500强高校榜单。
The system for ensuring responsibility is taken for poverty elimination will be effectively enforced, the strictest possible evaluations and assessments of poverty alleviation will be carried out, and stern measures will be taken to address deception, falsification, and the manipulation of numbers in poverty elimination work. We must see that the results of our poverty elimination earn the approval of our people and stand the test of time.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

中国青年住房拥有率达7成 专家质疑数据注水

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 该报道还指出经济更加发达的地区会有更多的网红,北京、上海、广东、江苏和浙江都位列前茅。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 威尼斯被普遍认为是世界上最浪漫的城市之一,也是许多游客必来的水上城市。
  • 青年之声:有一套房子之后才能娶爱的人吗?
  • If successful, the funding would underline the rapid growth of the sector this year. In April, Lufax raised $500m at a $10bn valuation.
  • 通州运河核心区将成世界级高端商务中心
  • 在这部感人的喜剧中,在久未联络的父亲去世后,自私的汽车经销商查理·巴比特了解到自己还有个哥哥。他很不高兴地发现,这个叫雷蒙德的哥哥因为严重自闭住在精神病院,却获得了父亲300万美元的遗产。查理发现哥哥心算很厉害,就利用他在拉斯维加斯赌博时数牌。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 严打虚假房源 北京住建委处罚25家房产中介
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Ann Hand
  • 报告称,北上广深等一线城市居民承受着较大的经济压力;而四线及以下城市的工作机会较少,人脉在生活的各个方面都起着重要作用。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

盘点:2017卫浴行业八大“瓶颈”

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